What need to do if you working in aviation

A list for us.

1.Get the Cat A or BCAR syllabus.

2.Find the ATA List.

3.Get the reference books.

4.Read the MCAR

5.Read the manuals.

6.Compile the notes related

During working/practises

7.Familiarise with the documentation

8.Record the visual inspection

9.Record the repair

10.Record the modification

11.Record the installation

12.Record the troubleshooting

13.Record the testing

14.Familiarise with the test equipment

15. Record the workarea or type of aircraft involve

16.Group the picture taken in ATA format


1.Impact of human factor and human error 
– equally important to technician, engineer, planner and manager

2.Organization culture (bad/good) 
– the way we do things here

3.Purpose of human factor 
– optimize personnel and system

4.Color blindness
 – red and green

5.Peripheral vision detected by
 – rod

6.Responsibility: obligation of individual to perform his best and be
 – accountable over his independent act decision

7.Conform to others 
– peer pressure

8.Long shift 
– decrease to recognize fault

9.What is important in sleep
 – quantity and quality

10.White finger
 – finger disorder caused continuous use of pneumatic tool

11.Task lighting in hangar are mainly
 – portable light

12.Hand-over job 
– written, verbal and walk through

13.Maintenance personnel can make their knowledge up to date by
 – refer to MM amendment

14.Human factor point of view, small changes to the technologies and procedure can cause
 – minor changes in the MM

15.If maintenance personnel do away from procedure
 – regular violent

16.In SHELL model, interpretation and writing of MM is under 
– software

17.Not install seal in one of a/c component
 – make an error of omission

18.The hub of SHELL model
 – liveware

– error report form

20.When carrying out a risk assessment 
– investigate where the equipment might fail

1.Differentiate between human error and violation

2.State 4 consequences (result to) human error

3.a)Explain SHELL model. Give explanation/meaning to each letter
b)Draw SHELL model to show the relationship between each letter. List 2     
Examples of each letter
c)Each SHELL letters may have deviation and errors. Explain potential error 
Which are related to each letter?

The price of commercial aircraft

How much would commercial aircraft  costs?

B737-600  $50 - 57 millions
B737-700  $57 - 67.5 millions
B737-800  $70.5 - 79 millions
B737-900ER  $74 - 85 millons

B767-200ER  $124.5 - 135.5 millions
B767-300ER  $141 - 157.5 millions
B767-300 Freighter  $151 - 162 millions
B767-400ER  $154 - 169 millions

B777-200ER  $200 - 225 millions
B777-200LR  $231 - 256.5 millions
B777-300ER  $250 - 279 millions
B777 Freighter  $246 - 254 millions

B747-400ER  $228 - 260 millions
B747-400ER Freighter  $232 - 261 millions
B747-8  $ 285.5 - 300 millions
B747-8 Freighter  $294 - 297 millions

B787-3  $146 - 151.5 millions
B787-8  $157 - 167 millions
B787-9  $189 - 200 millions

A320-200  $55 - 65 millions
A340-600 around $218millions
A380-800 around $330millions

Source: Airbus, Boeing, Flydamnit, google 
This is only an estimation.The Price may be differ due to current economy

Lets make a Malaysia your second home

There are many foreigners who currently working with airlines in Malaysia. For those who interested to make Malaysia as a second home, this is the best time to join MM2H ( Malaysia My second Home).

1.Effective from 9 January 2009, you can apply to participate in MM2h.
2.What is MM2H

Malaysia My Second Home Programme is promoted by the Goverment of Malaysia to allow foreigners who fullfill certain criteria, to stay in Malaysia for as long as possible on a multiple-entry social visit pass

Click here to read more


1.Passenger aircraft fly at 
– troposphere

2.Ambient pressure at sea level 
– 1013.25 milibars

3.Pressure decrease 
– temperature decrease

4.Temperature lapse rate
 – 1.98ºC at every 1000 ft

5.Bernoulli’s theorem the sum of 
– potential energy, pressure energy and kinetic energy is constant

6.Mean camber line 
– line equidistant from top surface  and bottom surface

7.Airflow thru the convergent duct causes
 – increase in velocity and decrease in pressure

8.What is angle of attack 
– angle between chord line and relative airflow

9.When lift increase in an aerofoil 
– centre of pressure moves forward

10.Which is true statement 
– lift act at right angle of the relative air flow and weight is vertically down

11.In an aerofoil formula, co-efficient of lift  is depend on 
– aerofoil shape and the angle of attack

12.Transition point at the wing is 
– separation of boundary layer from laminar flow to the turbulent flow

13.If a aircraft engine losses power it will 
– nose pitch down

14.Induced drag varies with
a)Square of the speed
b)Inversely proportional to the square of the speed

15.All 3 axis is thru
 – C of G

16.Lateral stability can be achieved by 
– main plane dihedral angle

17.High aspect ratio
 – decrease in induced drag 

18.What instability of yaw and roll 
– Dutch roll

19.Wash out
 – decrease of incidence from root to wing tip

20.Vapour trail at wingtip during the flight caused by 
– high pressure at the bottom wing and low pressure at the top wing  which causes the vortices


1.Bench vise is classified by 
– width of the jaw

2.Central head of a combination set is to – 

3.2 surface 90º and 45º  

4.To scribe a line parallel to the edge
 – hermaphrodite caliper

5.Aircraft brake fire must be extinguished with 
– dry powder

6.To tow nose wheel steering system, it is essential to – 
a)ensure nose wheel steering system is fully pressurized
b)ensure nose wheel steering system disconnect
c)ensure centralizer engaged

7.Class C fire is 
– electrical fire

8.Procedure to jack aircraft to a level position 
– jacking laterally, longitudinally then recheck laterally

9.ATA chapter for ‘servicing’
 –ATA 12

10.Drawing must be drawn according to standard 
– BS 308

11.Pictorial view
 – isometric

12.Minimum rivet to the edge 
– 2D

13.Dimensional inspection of bearing on rocker arm –
a)depth gauge and micrometer
b)telescopic gauge and micrometer
c)‘thickness’ and push fit arbor

14.Maintenance to restore the item to satisfactory condition –
a)prevention maintenance
b)corrective maintenance

15.Major and minor modification is depends on
 – effect on the airframe and powerplant

16.Purpose of the continuity check –
a)check the continuity of electrical circuit
b)check the resistance value of electrical circuit

17.Tubing bend 
– to prevent excessive stress on tubing

– not in the heel of the bend

19.Vernier micrometer 
– 0.0001

20.What is allowance –

21.1.5” of shaft, 1.449” of hole 
– push fit

22.Clearance –

23.Tap for finishing 
– plug tap

24.Refueling cannot be carried out when –
a)within 30m (100ft) 
b)radar functioning

25.Inspection hole of turnbuckle
 – safety of turnbuckle

26.Bearing prepacked with anti freeze grease 
– rejected

27.Rivet clearance 
– different of diameter hole and rivet

28.1st angle projection 
– plan view below front view

29.Thimble in micrometer
 – 50

30.Fire extinguisher for magnesium metal fire 
– carbon tetrachloride

31.References used for lubrication
 – maintenance manual

32.Chemical fluid to clean up bearing
 – white spirit

33.Type of drawing where both side are the same 
– symmetrical drawing

34.Skydrol get into the eyes 
– wash immediately

35.Tolerance –

36.Schematic diagram 
– wiring

37.To show relationship of 2 or more parts and subordinate assemblies
 – assembly drawing

38.On an inch micrometer, one revolution of thimble from zero point reading will produce
 – a gap of 0.025 between anvil and spindle

39.Pliers are classified by
 – type and overall length

40.Pliers are used to 
– grip small objects

41.Vee block is used to
 – hold round work for laying out

42.Insulation test –
a)resistance of insulator
b)resistance of resistor
c)high current

43.Bonding wire
 – control surface are interfered

44.Not to exceed 0.003 ohm

45.Less than 75 wires or 1 ½ to 2 inch in diameter

46.Hammer is classified by – 
a)width of jaw
b)the weight

47.If a mallet is used to tap bolt into a hole, then it is considered to be – 

48.To remove a bearing, it is permissible to use – 

49.Sagging is a process of – 

1.a)What is abnormal event report?
b)Check to be conducted due to heavy landing.

2.Short notes on
a) lead of a screw thread
b) swaging
c) bonded store
c) ATA 100
d) de-icer boot

3.5 defects on the following parts
a)control cable
c)rivet plate

4.List the process of crimping using terminal lug


1.The ability of a material to resist tensile load
 – tenacity 

2.Iron with 4% of carbon 
– cast iron

3.Content of carbon in high carbon steel 
– 0.6% to 1.5%

4.The characteristic of vanadium
 – has impact resistance

5.AN 3120 
– nickel chromium, 1% major alloy, 0.2% carbon

– relieves stress to hardened the steel

7.Aluminum 7075 refers to
 – zinc 

8.What does T6 in the 4th digit of aluminum alloy represents 
– heat treated and artificial ageing

9.Why is composite materials used in primary and secondary structures
 – orientation

10.Condition where the resin is less than the composite 
– resin starved

11.Process of sealant are 
– interfay, fillet, final brush

12.Why sitka spruce is used
 – uniformity of strength

13.What is the example of organic fabric 
– linen

14.Defect along the grain, on the growth ring
 – shake

15.Function of dope 
– tautening and protect the fabric

16.Integration of metal to its salt and oxide is termed as 
– corrosion

17.Metal that is more anodic to aluminum is 
– magnesium

18.Corrosion because of improper heat treatment 
– intergranular corrosion

19.The pitch of screw thread is 
– from crest to crest axially

20.The screw jack normally having 
– square thread

21.The American National Thread (ANF) has a thread angle of 
– 60º

22.Bolt that has the part number of AN 6 – 4 has the length of 
– ½”

23.Bolt that has thread at the both ends 
– stud

24.What is an Ezy out 
– tools to remove broken stud or bolt

25.Spring washer can be used 
– more than once

26.How to lock Dzus fasteners 
– 1/4 clockwise

27.The part number of countersunk rivet 
– AN 426

28.What is blind rivet
 – rivet that cannot excess from opposite side

29.What is 2024 
– DD rivet

30.Disadvantage of flared end fittings
 – fatigue crack at the flare end

31.Cylindrical roller bearing carry the load of
 – radial load

32.Bevel gear is used to 
– changing direction of drive

33.Pitch of chain is measured 
 - from center roller to the center of adjacent roller

34.7x19 cable has
a)19 wires, 7 strands
b)7 strands, 133 wires

35.Teleflex has
 – compression and tensile load

36.Common conductor
 – aluminum and copper

37.MS 3100 
– wall receptacle

38.Tool that is used to crimp 
– crimping tool

39.Cable that transmit power from igniter to the engine 
– high tension cable

40.NYVIN is the combination of
 – nylon and polyvinyl chloride

41.One method to produce steel is by
 – add carbon to wrought iron

42.Mild steel is 
– low carbon steel

43.Heat treatment process consist of 
– heating, soaking, quenching

44.Lower critical temperature for straight carbon
 – 725º

45.Aluminum alloy coated with pure aluminum is called 
– alclad

46.True statement 
a)Non-heat treated can be annealed
b)7075 can be solution heat treated, tempering and annealling

 – fabric that is already impregnated with resin and is ½ cured

– mixed of layer of advanced composite

Know your abbreviations

Here are some abbreviations, it might help for those who working with A320

ABCU - Alternate Brake Control Unit
ABRN - Airborne
ABS - Autobrake System
ABSORB - Absorber
ACARS - Aircraft Communication Addressing and Reporting System
ACCLRM - Accelerometer
ACCU - Accumulator
ACMM - Abbreviated Component Maintenance Manual
ACMS - Aircraft Condition Monitoring System
ACN - Aircraft Classification Number
BCDS - BITE Centralized Data System
BCL - Battery Charge Limiter
BCN - Beacon
BCRU - Battery Charge and Rectifier Unit
BCU - Brake Control Unit
BFO - Beat Freaquency Oscillator
BITE - Built-in Test Equipment
BIU - BITE Interface Unit
BLG - Body Landing Gear
BMC - Bleed Monitoring Computer
CAB - cabin
CAM - Cabin Assignment Module
CAOA - Corrected Angle Of Attack
CAS - Calibrated Air Speed
CBIT - Continous BITE
CBMS - Circuit Breaker Monitoring System
CBMU - Circuit Breaker Monitoring Unit
CC - Current Comparator
CCS - Cabin Communication System
CD - Control Display
CDAM - Centralized Data Acquisition Module
DMPR - Damper
DCD - Data Control and Display
DLK - Data Link
DMU - Data Management Unit
DCDU - Datalink Control and Display Unit
DH - Decision Height
DCDR - Decoder
DEU - Decoder/Encoder Unit
DPI - Differential Pressure Indicator
DAR - Digital AIDS Recorder (Used in single aisle family)
DADC - Digital Air Data Computer
DDM - Digital Data Module
DDRMI - Digital Distance and Radio Magnetic Indicator
DFDAMU - Digital Flight Data Acquisition and Management Unit
DFDAU - Digital Flight Data Acquisition Unit
DRDRS - Digital Flight Data Recording System
EAROM - Electrically Alterable Read Only Memory
EBCU - Emergency Brake Control Unit
EBHA - Electrical Backup Hydraulic Actuator
ECAM - Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring
ECMS - Electrical Contactor Management System
ECMU - Electrical Contactor Management Unit
ECP - ECAM Control Panel
ECS - Environmental Control System
EFCC - Electronic Flight Control Computer
EFCS - Electronic Flight Control System
EFCU - Electronic Flight Control Unit
FAV - Fan Air Valve
FIDS - Fault Isolation and Detection System
FIM - Fault Isolation Manual
FRM - Fault Reporting Manual
FPPU - Feedback Position Pick-off Unit
FDU - Fire Detection Unit
FAC - Flight Augment Computer
GAD - General Assembly Drawing
GEN - Generator
GCR - Generator Control Relay
GLC - Generator Line Contactor
GLR - Generator Line Relay
GAPCU - Ground and Auxiliary Power Control Unit
GPCU - Ground Power Control Unit
GPWC - Ground Proximity Warning Computer
GPWS - Ground Proximity Warning System
HEGS - Hydraulic Electrical Generating System
HFDR - High Frequency Data Radio
HGA - High Gain Antenna
HMC - Hydromechanical Contro
lHPA - High Power Amplifier
HPR - High Power Relay
HRP - Horizontal Reference Plane
HSI - Horizontal Situation Indicator
HSMU - Hydraulic System Monitoring Unit

Source : - flydamnit,pmfaviation

MODULE 2 Physics

1.The total number of proton and neutron is called
– mass number of an element

2.A slug is a unit of
– mass for English system

3.2 different elements can never be the same number of
– proton

4.The mass of neutron is
– much greater than the mass of electron

5.The SI unit of force is
– Newton (N)

6.The definition of stress
– force over area

7.The definition of high malleability
– the ability to become a thin sheet by hammering / passing thru a roller

8.Relationship between the buoyant force which exerted in submerged body and weight of submerged body displaces
– buoyant force equal to the weight of the fluid the body displace

9.Force that tends to cause twisting or angular displacement about the longitudinal axis
– torsion

10.Impulse is the product of
– force and time interval

11.Precession of a gyro is
– inversely proportional to the moment inertia of rotor and angular velocity of rotor

12.Calculate the kinetic energy of an object with mass = 4kg, velocity = 3msˉ¹
– 18 Joule

13.A boy pushes a box using a force of 100N over a distance of 2m in 5sec. What is the power generated by him? –
40 watt

14.Define specific gravity of a substance
– density of a substance over density of water of equal volume

15.Temperature of 77ºF is equal to
– 25ºC

16.Temperature of 113ºF is equal to
– 318ºK

17.A length of a ruler of 100cm has center of gravity of
– 50cm

18.A mass of an object of 10kg is lifted thru a distance of 4m on a planet where g = 6msˉ². Calculate the work
– 240 Joule

19.Definition of 1 calorie
– 4.186 Joule or amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1ºC

20.Acceleration of the earth of this orbit around the sun points
– straight in toward the sun

21.Which of the following statement is not true about temperature
– temperature flow from the hotter part to the colder part

22.If fluid moves freely, it has
– low viscosity

23.Which of the following shows that force can change the shape of an object
– a balloon pressed in the center

24.A boat thrust backward as we move forward, it is due to
– Newton’s 3rd law

25.When a car drive in a level straight away and suddenly hit the brake, what is the acceleration vector poin
ta)opposite direction to the car traveling
b)the same direction to the car traveling

26.According to the law of momentum, in an ideal closed system
– when 2 object collide, neither gain or lost of energy

27.Which have not an effect to the momentum of the moving of spherical object
– diameter

28.Which is not always true – acceleration is always points in the same direction with the velocity

29.A ball is put on the floor did not move when a rope attached to it is placed because
– great number of gravitational force

30.Velocity has 2 components. What are they?
a)Magnitude and direction
b)Distance and time

Basic CF6 ( compressor control )

1.Functions of compressor control?
-to prevent stall
2.2 ways to control it
-by control vsv(CIT&T2c) and vbv(feedback of vsv input)

3.VSV inputs?
-N2 & T2C/CIT

4.How CIT and N2 acts on 3D cam?
-CIT:axially and N2:rotationally

5.VBV inputs?
-Feedback of vsv

6.VBV is reset under what conditions?
-Thrust reverser operation and throttle chop

7.VSV is reset at rapid acceleration for what?
-to reduce N1 and EGT overshoot.

8.Where is the position of VSV master feedback cable?
-on L/H master ....

9.What position is used for rigging of VSV?
-In open position.

10.Which one should reached end of travel first; Hydraulic actuators or MEC lever?
-hydraulic actuator

11.Is the extended length for VSV actuator critical when rigging?

12.What is the purpose of double seal in actuator?
-When leak, first seal leak will be drain through cavity drain

13.When N2 is decreased VSV will

14.When N2 is increased VBV will

15.VBV actuators are closed or opened for rigging?

16.VBV is mounted at what position?
-at 3 o'clock and 9 o'clock

17.Is the length of VBV actuator critical?
-not critical

18.Whatare the purposes of VSV reset actuator?
-reduction of EGT overshoot, reduce pilot workload

19.During rapid throttle burst, what will happen to N1 and EGT?

20.What stage air is used for VSV reset actuator operation?
-7th stage air

21.Air from VSV reset actuator is discharged to where?
-to LP recoup and joined the fan stream

Basic CF6

Fuel system.

1.How is thrust output measured?-By N1-Fan speed

2.Can N1 be directly controlled by pilot?-Can't N2 only and N2 is coupled to N1 by aerodynamic couple.

3.How is N2 controlled?-By power lever

4.What does the power lever varies to control fuel flow?-Tension of speeder spring

5.When temperature is increase what will happen to N1?-N1 will increase because N1 is varies with temperature

6.Fuel system is controlled from cockpit by what?-Power lever(throttle)

7.What are the 3 levels of idle?-Ground idle, Flight idle and Min idle

8.What is ground idle?-sufficient thrust for taxiing

9.What is flight idle?-Engine accelaration from idle to take off within 8 sec (FAA)

10.What will happen to Ground idle and FLight idle during hot day?-Increase

11.Throttle lever must be moved forward extra on cold or hot day?-hot day

12.What is the purpose of throtlle interlock?-to allow thrust reverser time move to 90% deploy

13.How to varify faulty Mec or CIT sensor?-both G.I and F.I failed if one fail mec fault

14.What is emergency fuel limitations?-at 20000ft, 24 degrees centigrade 3 hours continue and 4 hours cumulative

15.What are the types of fuel nozzles?-Dual/secondary flow special and secondary nozzle

16.Identification of fuel nozzle?-White aluminium(primary), green(secondary), blue(special)

17.odd no ports for what nozzle?-primary/dual flow nozzle

18.even no ports for what nozzle?-secondary nozzle

19.port no 12 is for what nozzle?-special nozzle

20.What air is used to cool nozzle tip?-CDP air

21.What are the inputs for MEC?-PLA, CIT, CDP, N2

22.What are the adjustments available on MEC?-G.I F.I specific gravity VSV and VBV

23.What are the pilot's input into MEC?PLA and HPC

24.What is the GI/FI schedule for-to know aircraft on ground or not and to....

25.When squat switch is energized, it indicates ground or flight idle?-Ground idle

26.Acceleration limit schedule is for-

27.What are the inputs for accel decel limits?-CDP, CIT and N2

28.What are the functions of the MFP?-

29.MFP is attached to?-to AGB by QAD ring

30.Why must the boost pump be 'on' during dry motoring?-to provide lubrication / positive fuel pressure

31.How many stages of MFP?-2 stages

32.What types of pump?-impeller/centrifugal/boost pumps and gear type displacement

33.Where is fuel pressure tapped?-Pump interstage

34.Is there a bypass indication on debris screen?-No

35.Eductors are only effective on wing or tail engine?-Only on wing

36.Location of heat exchanger with reference to MFP?-to the left of MFP

37.Does the fuel line in heat exchanger have a bypass?-No only oil

38.Location of fuel filter with regards to MFP?-to the right of MFP

39.Is the filter element reusable?-yes

40.What switch is tapped across the filter?-differential pressure switch

41.What is the switch for?-

42.What must be done before servicing the filter?-shutt off LP cock

43.Location of P&D valve w.r.t to MEC?-on MEC outlet

44.Functions of P&D valve?-Drain fuel manifold at shutdown

45.Ports on P&D valve?-

46.Fuel manifold is shrouded to prevent what?-

47.Identification band is provided at which connectors?-

48.Where are CIT sensor mounted?-on fan frame at 5&6 o clock

49.What gas is used in CIT?-Helium

50.CIT sensor moves 3D cam in what direction?-Aerial

51.What is the malfunctions on CIT?-Hot shift and Cold shift.

52.CIT is cooled by what?-Air

53.What happens if cam is moved too extreme?-MEC used standard day temperature.

Welcome to my blog

Welcome to my blog. My name is Aina Sahalin. Some of the notes, infos, tips and QnA is meant only for guidance and improves understanding only. Some information may or may not be correct. It is up to you to check the answer yourself or just leave a comment so we could discuss it together. 


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Thank you:
A.S ( Aina Sahalin)

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